RAS oncogene affects numerous cellular functions including growth, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, division and differentiation of the cells. It has 3 known isoforms as Harvey- RAS (HRAS), Kirsten - RAS (KRAS) and Neuroblastoma- RAS (NRAS). RAS has an intrinsic GTPase activity. It encodes proteins binding the guanine nucleotides. KRAS and HRAS were discovered in studies carried out on viruses leading to cancer. Retroviral oncogenes related to murine sarcoma virus genes (Kristen Rat Sarcoma Virus and Murine Sarcoma Virus) were discovered in 1982. These two oncogenes are similar to human KRAS. Approximately 30% of all human cancers have ras genes. Mutations in KRAS account for about 85% for all RAS mutations in human tumors, NRAS is about 11–15%, and HRAS is about 1%.
Corresponding Author: Hilmi Kodaz